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HomeEducationIntroduction to Nine Tajweed Rules to Advance Your Quran Learning

Introduction to Nine Tajweed Rules to Advance Your Quran Learning

Etiquettes of Reading the Holy Quran

Allah Almighty has blessed His creation with an Ultimate Guide in the form of the Holy Quran. He has provided us a complete code of life i.e., Islam explained beautifully in His Own Words in the Holy Book. As a believer, it is our responsibility to make Holy Quran an integral part of our lives. It is not possible to follow the guidelines and to learn Quran at home unless we strive to understand properly what has been addressed in the Book of Allah. The most fortunate and blessed believer, however, is the one who not only struggles to understand the Words of Allah but also recites the same in a proper and measured way i.e., in adherence with proper Tajweed rules.

The same has been mentioned in the Holy Quran. In the following verse, Allah The Exalted says:

وَرَتِّلْ الْقُرْآنَ تَرْتِيلاً

and recite the Quran “properly” in a measured way” (73:4)

Therefore, it is extremely necessary to pronounce each and every word of Allah accurately. The wrong pronunciation will not only incur Allah’s displeasure but will also change the meaning of words.

Tajweed – Art to Rightly Pronounce the Holy Quran 

A set of guidelines “Tajweed Rules” are necessary to follow to properly recite the most beautiful manuscript on earth. Linguistically “Tajweed” means Proficiency. When applied to the Quran, it means fulfilling the right of each letter of the Quran by correctly pronouncing it. It is pertinent to note that pronouncing each letter according to Tajweed rules maintains the characteristics of these letters at the particular point where they are mentioned in the Holy Quran.

Holy Quran was revealed to Holy Prophet (PBUH) in the Arabic language which was the native language of Arabs and they naturally used to recite the Quran with Tajweed. Tajweed rules were recorded by scholars to eliminate the mistakes that had arisen due to the spread of Islam within Non-Arabs with Arabic not being their native language. Each Arabic letter has an articulation or exit point in the throat or mouth called it’s Makhraj and a particular characteristic or attribute called its Sifaat.

Tajweed rules are based on knowing and pronouncing each letter according to its Makhraj and Sifaat. Knowing these rules and to read Quran with Tajweed is necessary as two letters having similar exit points may be mixed up easily jeopardizing the meaning of the words during the recitation of the Holy Quran. A Muslim gets peace of mind from reciting any verses of the Quran that is most essential for maintaining good health.

Tajweed Rules 

Some of the basic rules to be followed to read Quran with Tajweed are discussed below. It should be noted that learning the Holy Quran is an ongoing process for a believer. It is our responsibility to learn Quran at home through Quran classes online or to strive in the way of learning the Quran by being in close association with the Scholars and Teachers of the Holy Quran.

1. Rules of Noon and Meem Mushaddad

If the letter Meem (ﻡ) or Noon (ن) has a shahada (ﹼ) sign on it, the reciter must do Ghunnah on it. Ghunnah refers to Nasal sound of 2 beats or harakah (fatha ﹷ , Dammah ﹹ or Kasrah ﹻ). The rule applies even if a word ends with Noon or Meem Mushaddad and the reciter stops after it.

إِنَّ جَهَنَّمَ كَانَتْ مِرْصَادً

(78:21)

ثُمَّ كَلاَّ سَوْفَ تَعْلَمُونَ

(102:4)

2. The Rules of Meem Saakin (مْ)

There are three rules for Meem Saakin.

Ikhfa Meem Saakin i

If Meem Saakin is followed by the letter Baa (ب ), Ikhfa is to be done and meem is to pronounce while avoiding the complete contact of the lips. A Ghunnah with two nasal beats is also performed.

أَافْتَرَى عَلَى اللَّهِ كَذِبًا أَمْ بِهِ جِنَّةٌ

(34:8)

Idghaam Meem Saakin

If a Meem Saakin is followed by Mushaddad (مّ) , an Idghaam will be done i.e., “the second Meem is merged with the first and will be pronounced with Ghunnah with two nasal beats.

وَيَجْعَلُونَ لِلَّهِ ٱلْبَنَٰتِ سُبْحَٰنَهُۥ ۙ وَلَهُم مَّا يَشْتَهُونَ

(16:57)

Ithaar Meem Saakin

If the Meem Saakin is followed by any letter other than “ب” , “م” , then Ithaar will occur and it will be pronounced clearly without Ghunnah by making a complete contact of the two lips.

3. Al–Qalqalah

Qalqalah means Vibration. It is the shaking of the sound created at the end of a particular letter. There are five letters of Qalqalah:

د

ج

ب

Qalqalah is performed if any of the five letters written above have a saakin sign on it. If the letter appears at the end of the verse it is considered saakin and Qalqalah is done. The Quran reciter must be careful so as not to shake the letter to an extent that it sounds like a beat.

قَالَ أَنَا۠ خَيْرٌ مِّنْهُ خَلَقْتَنِى مِن نَّارٍ وَخَلَقْتَهُۥ مِن طِينٍ

(7:12)

كَلاَّ إِنَّ الإِنسَانَ لَيَطْغَى

(96:6)

كَلاَّ لاَ تُطِعْهُ وَاسْجُدْ وَاقْتَرِبْ

(96:19)

ب

وَهَدَيْنَاهُ النَّجْدَيْنِ

(90:10)

ج

لَمْ يَلِدْ وَلَمْ يُولَدْ

(112:3)

د

4. The Heavy and Light Letters

The heavy letters are pronounced when the back part of the tongue rises up to the palate to make the heavy sound of the letter. The letters other than the heavy letters are pronounced by lowering the tongue. The heavy letters include:

خ

ص

ض

غ

ط

ق

ظ

5. Alif Madd ( أ )

If before the Alif Madd, the light letter appears then Alif Madd should be recited in a light sound whereas if a heavy letter appears before Alif Madd then a heavy sound will be performed for Alif Madd.

6. Laam (ل) in the Exalted Name of Allah

The Laam in Allah will be pronounced as heavy if the word of Allahum or Allah is preceded by the Fatha (ﹷ) or a Dhamma (ﹹ).

قُلْ هُوَ اللَّهُ أَحَدٌ

(112:1)

فَقَالَ لَهُمْ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ نَاقَةَ اللَّهِ وَسُقْيَاهَا

(91:13)

However, the Laam in Allah or Allahum will be pronounced as light in case there is Kasrah (ﹻ) before the word Allah.

يُسَبِّحُ لِلَّهِ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَمَا فِي الأَرْضِ

(62:1)

7. Ruling of Raa’(ر ) Being HEAVY or LIGHT

The letter Raa’(ر) is pronounced light or heavy-based upon whether it is saakin or mutaharik (i.e., it has some harakah sign on it).

A Mutaharik Raa’ with a Fatha (ﹷ) or a Dhamma (ﹹ) sign is pronounced heavy.

قُلْ أَعُوذُ بِرَبِّ النَّاسِ

(114:1)

إِذَا جَاءَ نَصْرُ اللَّهِ وَالْفَتْحُ

(110:1)

A Raa’ with Kasrah (ﹻ) sign on it is pronounced as light.

الَّذِي يُوَسْوِسُ فِي صُدُورِ النَّاسِ

(114:5)

If the letter Raa’ has a Saakin sign, then it is pronounced heavy if the letter preceding Raa’ has a Fatha (ﹷ) or a Dhamma (ﹹ) sign.

وَلَسَوْفَ يَرْضَى

(92:21)

ثُمَّ إِلَيْهِ تُرْجَعُونَ

(39:44)

In case the letter before Raa’ has a Kasrah (ﹻ) sign, then Raa’ is pronounced light.

فِرْعَوْنَ وَثَمُودَ

(85:18)

8. The Rules of Noon Sakin (نْ )and Tanween ( )

There are four rules for Noon Saakin and Tanween depending upon the letter appearing afternoon.

  • Idhaar

If Harrof ul Halqiya or the throat letters appear after Noon Saakin or Tanween then these letters will be clearly pronounced. Harrof ul Halqiya include these letters:

 

ه

ء

غ

 

فَصَلِّ لِرَبِّكَ وَانْحَرْ

(108:2)

وَكُلاَ مِنْهَا رَغَدًا حَيْثُ شِئْتُمَا

(2:35)

ذَلِكَ لِمَنْ خَشِيَ رَبَّهُ

(98:8)

إِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ عَلِيمًا خَبِيرًا

(4:35)

مَتَاعًا لَكُمْ وَلأَنْعَامِكُمْ

(80:32)

وَإِذَا جَاءَكَ الَّذِينَ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِآيَاتِنَا فَقُلْ سَلاَمٌ عَلَيْكُمْ

(6:54)

وَنَزَعْنَا مَا فِي صُدُورِهِمْ مِنْ غِلٍّ تَجْرِي مِنْ تَحْتِهِمْ الأَنْهَارُ

(7:43)

إِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ عَفُوًّا غَفُورًا

(4:43)

غ

مِنْ أَهْلِ الْكِتَابِ وَالْمُشْرِكِينَ مُنفَكِّينَ

 (98:1)

كِتَابٌ أَنزَلْنَاهُ إِلَيْكَ مُبَارَكٌ

(38:29)

ء

أَخْرَجَ مِنْهَا مَاءَهَا وَمَرْعَاهَا

(79:31)

وَلِكُلِّ قَوْمٍ هَادٍ

(13:7)

ه

Iqlab

If letter ﺏ comes after Noon Saakin or Tanween, it is read as a ﻡ with separation between two lips and a Ghunnah is done for 2 nasal beats.

قَالُوا يَاوَيْلَنَا مَنْ بَعَثَنَا مِنْ مَرْقَدِنَا هَذَا مَا وَعَدَ الرَّحْمَنُ وَصَدَقَ الْمُرْسَلُونَ

(36:52)

كَذَّبَتْ ثَمُودُ وَعَادٌ بِالْقَارِعَةِ

(69:4)

Idghaam

If any of the letters including  below mentioned

ن

و

ل

ر

ى

appear after Noon Saakin or Tanween, Idghaam is performed. Idghaam with Ghunnah is performed for letters ىﻡون whereas for letters ل and ر Idghamm is done without Ghunnah. For the four letters ىﻡون, the Noon Saakin or Tanween is not pronounced and Ghunnah is done with these four letters. For letter ل and ر, the Noon and Tanween is not pronounced and the letters are pronounced without Ghunnah.

 إِنْ يَقُولُونَ إِلاَّ كَذِبًا

(18:5)

جَنَّٰتُ عَدْنٍ يَدْخُلُونَهَا وَمَن صَلَحَ مِنْ ءَابَآئِهِمْ وَأَزْوَٰجِهِمْ (13:23)

ى

وَمَنْ يَرْغَبُ عَنْ مِلَّةِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ إِلاَّ مَنْ سَفِهَ نَفْسَهُ

 (2:130)

أَفَمَنْ كَانَ عَلَى بَيِّنَةٍ مِنْ رَبِّهِ

 (47:14)

فَلاَ مَرَدَّ لَهُ وَمَا لَهُمْ مِنْ دُونِهِ مِنْ وَالٍ

 (13:11)

إِنَّ الْمُتَّقِينَ فِي جَنَّاتٍ وَنَهَرٍ

 (54:54)

و

وَمَا كَانَ لَنَا أَنْ نَأْتِيَكُمْ بِسُلْطَانٍ إِلاَّ بِإِذْنِ اللَّهِ

 (14:11)

فَيَقُولُ الَّذِينَ ظَلَمُوا رَبَّنَا أَخِّرْنَا إِلَى أَجَلٍ قَرِيبٍ نُجِبْ دَعْوَتَكَ وَنَتَّبِعْ الرُّسُلَ

 (14:44)

ن

مَنْ لَوْ يَشَاءُ اللَّهُ أَطْعَمَهُ

(36:47)

 هُدًى لِلْمُتَّقِينَ

(2:2)

ل

أُوْلَئِكَ عَلَى هُدًى مِنْ رَبِّهِمْ وَأُوْلَئِكَ هُمْ الْمُفْلِحُونَ

(2:5)

وَأَنَّ اللَّهَ غَفُورٌ رَحِيمٌ

(5:98)

ر

  • Ikhfa

If letters other than Harrof ul Halqiya, Iqlab or Idghaam letters appear after Noon Saakin or Tanween, Ghunnah with two nasal beats will be done.

The Ghunnah sound will be heavy if a heavy letter appears after Noon Saakin or Tanween.

وَمَن قَتَلَ مُؤْمِنًا خَطَـًٔا فَتَحْرِيرُ رَقَبَةٍ مُّؤْمِنَةٍ وَدِيَةٌ مُّسَلَّمَةٌ

(4:92)

بَلْدَةٌ طَيِّبَةٌ وَرَبٌّ غَفُورٌ

(34:15)

Whereas Ghunnah sound will be light if Noon Saalkin and Tanween are followed by light letters.

 وَإِنْ تَغْفِرْ لَهُمْ فَإِنَّكَ أَنْتَ الْعَزِيزُ الْحَكِيمُ

(5:118)

إِن يَشَأْ يُذْهِبْكُمْ وَيَأْتِ بِخَلْقٍ جَدِيدٍ

(35:16)

9. Stop and Pause Rulings

  1. The last letter is read as saakin if the signs( ﹷ ﹹ ﹻ ) or Tanween signs(ﹴ ﹰ ﹲ) are present on the last letter of the word where a stop is required.

وَمَا أَدْرَاكَ مَا الْقَارِعَةُؕ

 (101:3)

  1. The last letter is pronounced as Fatha (ﹷ) in case if it is Alif or has a Madd on it, and the letter before it has Fatha (ﹷ) or Fatha Tanween (ﹱ).

وَالشَّمْسِ وَضُحَاهَا

(91:1)

فَسَبِّحْ بِحَمْدِ رَبِّكَ وَاسْتَغْفِرْهُ إِنَّهُ كَانَ تَوَّابًا

(110:3)

  • Whenever there is a meem sign (ﻣ) or Taa sign (ؕ), a compulsory stop is required.

وَاضْرِبْ لَهُمْ مَثَلاً أَصْحَابَ الْقَرْيَةِ إِذْ جَاءَهَا الْمُرْسَلُونَ

(36:13)

وَتَكُونُ الْجِبَالُ كَالْعِهْنِ الْمَنفُوشِؕ

(101:5)

  1. At each point where ࣟ   or  ࣝ  sign appears, a momentary stop is required without breaking the breath.

وَاعْفُ عَنَّا  ࣟ  وَاغْفِرْ لَنَا  ࣟ  وَارْحَمْنَا  ࣟ  أَنْتَ مَوْلاَنَا

(2:286)

وَقِيلَ مَنْ  ࣝ  رَاقٍ

(75:27)

  1. It is important to continue recitation wherever ۙ appears.

ۙ الْقَارِعَة

(101:1)

  1. A pause in recitation is recommended if ࣞ  sign appears.

سَلاَمٌقَوْلاً مِنْ رَبٍّ رَحِيمٍ

(36:58)

  • The Quran reciter may pause or continue reading when ج sign appears.

سَبَّحَ لِلَّهِ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالأَرْضِجوَهُوَ الْعَزِيزُ الْحَكِيمُ

(57:1)

  • If ؞ sign appears in a verse, any two out of three sections of the verse should be read in continuity.

ذَٲلِكَ ٱلۡڪِتَـٰبُ لَا رَيۡبَ‌ۛ فِيهِ‌ۛ هُدً۬ى لِّلۡمُتَّقِينَ

(2:2)

It is important to read Quran with Tajweed as only by following the Tajweed rules we will be able to fulfill the right of Quran recitation. It is very hard for a non- Arab to read and learn Quran at home with Tajweed by himself. For grasping the basic Tajweed rules and to learn accurate application for the recitation of the Holy Quran, we must take help from online Quran classes. The Online Quran classes provide the most viable source of knowledge. Also, we can get instant help from online Quran tutors in case of any difficulty.

May Allah help us to recite and understand The Most beautiful Scripture- the Holy Quran in the true real sense. May we also hold firmly the Final Book revealed to beloved Last Messenger (PBUH) to seek real guidance. Amen

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