Experts unconditionally consider sea transportation to be one of the most influential modern moving goods over a long distance. Compared to their competitors – transport by road, rail, and aircraft – shipping by sea is usually much less expensive. This cargo transportation method’s main advantage is that it does not require unique infrastructure, which is especially beneficial when transporting goods with large dimensions.
What Kind of Transport Is Used?
Over a thousand-year practice of sea cargo transportation, special ships’ arsenal has been developed to carry them out. Carries out water transport transportation of a wide variety of goods of a wide range. These are grain, oil products, all kinds of equipment, food products, etc., including large-sized ones. Sea freight from China to Canada requires a vast network of special containers with robust fasteners and other necessary devices, conditions, depending on the type, characteristics of the cargo. To ensure all kinds of sea transportation, vessels are used in the form: Ro-rockers – specially equipped containers for the targeted transport of bulky cargo, equipment, wagons, etc., for which the use of pallets is widely practiced, horizontal, vertical options for loading and unloading cargo; bulk carriers – vessels that are filled with coal, sand, grain, crushed stone, and other bulk cargo during transportation. Such ships are built in huge containers, divided into autonomous compartments, which can be hermetically closed with lids; ferries, which are a type of ro-ro. As a rule, Ferries are built in the form of a series of tiers, the lower ones are explicitly intended for the transportation of goods, and the upper ones can also be used for passengers’ vehicles and service. All loading operations are carried out in a horizontal format; tankers are now the most popular cargo ships for the transport of oil, products produced from it, liquefied gas, and other liquid cargo. Then the cargo is pumped into the tankers using powerful pumps. Also, bulk cargo is transported using tankers; container ships carrying many special containers for the transport of goods exclusively. These containers are securely fastened. There are clear-cut loading methods, placed on the deck, tested by practice; dry cargo ships – vessels intended for the transportation of meat, fish, other food products, and dry cargo, various non-standard equipment. The advantage of dry cargo vessels is that they can load and unload goods autonomously in any port on their own.
Advantages of Shipping by Sea
The principal, economically, the technologically sound advantage of the transportation of goods by water transport is the absence of superior infrastructure, which is especially beneficial when transporting goods with large dimensions. At the cost of transportation, this is the most acceptable option, which, moreover, has many other advantages. Experts believe that the main benefits of container transportation are the indisputable fact that in this case, complete safety is guaranteed, as well as the inviolability of the goods placed in containers. The clear advantage of sea transportation is their versatility: they have no restrictions regarding the volume of goods or their type. Also, containers provide an opportunity for prompt loading and unloading of goods in seaports.
Rules for the Carriage of Goods by Sea
Transport companies from different countries, carrying out the transportation of goods by sea, have developed a considerable practice of their reliable transportation using select vehicles. Various rules for loading, unloading goods, and other cargo types, their rational, safe location on decks, in holds, and other places for transportation have been developed, tested, and widely applied in practice.
Sea transportation of goods in containers necessarily takes into account their specifics. For this, the industry produces different versions of boxes, differing in size and type. The most common are standard containers, also called “dry.” Complexes of 20-foot containers are most often used to handle heavy loads of small sizes, 40-foot containers, or, as they are also called, “high,” are designed for bulky but light loads. Also, there are other types of special freight containers: with an open roof, which are loaded from above; refrigerators, the purpose of which is the delivery of food products, other goods that require a particular temperature regime; tank containers designed for the transportation of gaseous or liquid substances; open areas with the help of which oversized cargo is transported.
Depending on the nuances of transportation, there are features of the organization of sea transportation, which, as a rule, are indeed carried out in practice. Also, tariffs for the cost of transport are set in a centralized way.
Sea transportation is carried out with the issuance and application of special licenses. All companies and structures that carry out the carriage of goods by sea, loading and unloading operations in ports, survey services of ships, and other functions must have them. Both legal entities and individual people in business and entrepreneurs can have licenses for sea freight. They are also required if sea container transportation and other specific formats of cargo movement are carried out. To obtain a permit for sea cargo transportation, a package of relevant documents is provided to the authorities controlling this matter. It issues a license for five years, after which it will need to be renewed by the procedure established by law. Also, tariffs for the cost of carriage of goods by sea are set in a centralized manner.
Based on many years of practice, a set of rules for packaging goods for sea transportation has been developed. Their implementation allows you to ensure the maximum safety of the goods regardless of weather conditions and transportation duration. In this case, incredibly stringent requirements are imposed on the packaging of goods: each section of the cargo must have a wooden crate, fastened, if necessary, with a metal tape; the entire surface of the container created for the carriage of freight must be covered with plastic wrap; the goods should be placed on pallets surrounded by rails around the perimeter; each box should be additionally reinforced with lumber; to protect boxes with interests from precipitation, dampness, they are covered with a tarpaulin; their reliable strengthening, etc. accompany transportation of containers by sea.
In many respects, international cargo transportation has its specifics different from the conditions for transporting goods within a single country. In this case, not only the peculiarities of transport movement, global economies play a significant role. Economic and transport nuances in the case of international transportation of goods often give way to political factors. All kinds of penalties, prohibitions, and warnings are in force due to which carriers have to carefully choose, check transport routes, and choose the most reliable and safe ones. Among the new, effectively developing transport sea routes, it should be noted in Southeast Asia and Latin America, China, Turkey, Egypt, and other countries.